Top image: NASA
Bottom image: NASA
1. The Promise
What John Key said to the National Blue-Green Forum, on 6 September 2008, one month before the up-coming election that year;
“What global Leaders know, and what the National Party knows, is that environmentalism and a commitment to economic growth must go hand in hand. We should be wary of anyone who claims that one can or should come without the other. And we should always measure a Government’s environmental rhetoric against its environmental record.
In the years ahead it will be increasingly important that New Zealand marries its economic and environmental policies. Global climate change awareness, resource shortages, and increasing intolerance of environmental degradation will give environmental policy renewed relevance on the world stage…
… And, in seeking the balance between environmental and economic goals, National will never forget that New Zealand’s outstanding physical environment is a key part of what makes our country special. Kiwis proudly value our forests, mountains, rivers, lakes, and oceans. They are part of our history and they must continue to define our future.”
Significantly, Key added;
“National will also ensure New Zealand works on the world stage to support international efforts to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions. We are committed to honouring our Kyoto Protocol obligations and we will work to achieve further global alliances that build on the goals agreed to at Kyoto.”
Pre-election, Key had unequivocally committed National to reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and honouring New Zealand’s Kyoto Protocol obligations.
2. Agriculture and the Emissions Trading Scheme – Timeline of a Broken Promise
On May 2008, John Key stated,
“National supports the principle of the ETS and is following the select committee process closely. National has had reservations about the timing of new taxes on motorists and households when there has been no personal tax relief for so long.”
On 8 April 2010, Key confirmed that the ETS would be preserved unchanged,
“I’d say it’s unlikely it would be amended.”
By 6 June 2010, the then-Climate Minister, Nick Smith announced that whether or not agriculture comes into the emissions trading scheme in 2015 would depend on technological advances and what other countries do.
And on 9 November 2011, Nick Smith announced,
“ … It is not in New Zealand’s interests to include agricultural emissions in the ETS yet. The lack of any practical and real technologies to reduce agricultural emissions means it would only impose a cost or tax on our most important export industry. It would also have New Zealand too far ahead of our trading partners on climate change mitigation measures. National will review the position in 2014 and only include agriculture if new technologies are available and more progress is made internationally on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.”
By 3 July 2012, Key began to publicly vacillate,
“John Key says the Government will wait for other countries to follow suit before introducing agriculture into the Emissions Trading Scheme…”
And on 20 August 2012, National introduced the “Climate Change Response (Emissions Trading and Other Matters) Amendment Bill 2012″, which would remove agricultural emmissions indefinitely, and;
“…remove a specified entry date for surrender obligations on biological emissions from agriculture”.
It took them four years to do it, but with some cunning public manipulation (and outright lies) – National achieved it’s real agenda,
- Watering down the ETS until it was toothless,
- Keeping agriculture (the worst emitter of greenhouse gases in NZ) out of the ETS
- Abandoning the Kyoto protocol
It was National’s worst broken promise (one of many), and it successfully slipped under the public and media radar.
3. Gagging the Watchmen
Part of National’s strategy to cope with embarrassing data on unpalatable problems – is to eliminate the data. This is Standard Operating Procedure for this government, and has been used to prevent data collected on Child Poverty and foreign investors buying up farms and houses.
By eliminating (or not collecting) data, it becomes difficult for the media and public to assess problems and determine how effective the government is in dealing with them.
The public, media, Opposition parties, and other critics become reliant on hear-say, anecdotal evidence, and evidence obtained through back-door methods. The recent release of a list of non-resident/citizen Chinese investors in our already over-heated property-market is perhaps the best example of this pressing problem.
National also employed the same tactic by no longer requiring five-yearly State of the Environment Reports from the Ministry of the Environment;
National’s minister explained;
Environment Minister Amy Adams said the ministry is continually tracing environmental performance using 22 core indicators and the change is to ensure new information is released as it comes to hand.
Commissioner for the Environment Jan Wright was not impressed, and said as much;
Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment Jan Wright said that is not good enough, because the data is not compiled, analysed, or compared.
Ms Wright is correct. This was National’s clumsy move to silence critics and hide evidence of our on-going environmental degradation. (See Addendum1 below)
Because really, if Minister Adams wanted “to ensure new information is released as it comes to hand” – there is absolutely no sound reason why that could not be done and still have five yearly State of the Environment Reports produced.
The only possible reason for State of the Environment Reports being scrapped by National is that they were fearful of the information that would become public.
4. National abandons Kyoto Protocols
At the same time that National was quietly abandoning it’s pre-election committment to include agriculture in the Emissions Trading Scheme, our esteemed dear Leader, John Key, was announcing that New Zealand would not commit to the second state of the Kyoto protocols;
Prime Minister John Key has defended the Government’s decision not to sign on for the second stage of the Kyoto Protocol, saying the country is playing its part in combating climate change.
The climate change treaty’s first commitment period expires at the end of the year and New Zealand expects to slightly exceed its target.
The treaty aims to curb international greenhouse gas emissions through binding national commitments but some countries have questioned its effectiveness.
New Zealand would be joining other countries in going following the “convention track”, Mr Key said on TVNZ’s Breakfast show today.
“Next year New Zealand will name a binding commitment to climate change – it will actually have a physical rate that we’re going to hit – but instead of being what’s called a second commitment period that is likely to run from 2012 to 2020, we’ll be able to set our own rules around that,” Mr Key said.
As Fairfax’s Vernon Small reported at the time;
The Government has opted not to sign up to the second Kyoto Protocol commitment period from 2013 and will instead take its pledge to reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the parallel “United Nation Convention Framework”.
Protocol targets are legally binding, and the convention ones are not.
That would mean from next year New Zealand would be aligning its climate change efforts with developed and developing countries responsible for 85 per cent of global emissions.
“This includes the United States, Japan, China, India, Canada, Brazil, Russia and many other major economies,” Groser said.
In other words, our government has put us into a ‘club’ with the world’s major polluters.
Key wants to “set our own rules around” climate change. It is fairly apparent what those rules are; doing as little as possible.
5. Shifting Goalposts
Even less known by the msm (mainstream media) and public is how National has moved targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions since 1991. For the the past 24 years, successive National governments have quietly and with little scrutiny, changed targets for reducing emissions.
- First Target
In September 1993, the Bolger-led National Government signed up to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) . Four months after the UNFCCC came into effect, in July 1994, National announced a number of very specific climate change committments, as the State of New Zealand’s Environment 1997 report outlined;
◊ a target of reducing net emissions to 1990 volumes by the year 2000,
◊ a target of slowing growth of gross emissions by 20%,
◊ increased carbon storage in plantation forests
◊ energy sector reforms
◊ an energy efficiency strategy and the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA),
◊ renewable energy sources
◊ use of the Resource Management Act; and,
◊ voluntary agreements with industry.
(Source for precise bullet-points – Wikipedia)
Even the initial target – reducing net emissions to 1990 volumes by the year 2000 – was the bare minimum, being set at net levels, rather than gross.
National stipulated that if emissions were not stabilised at 1990 levels, by 2000, a (low-level) carbon charge would be introduced in December 1997.
- Second Target
By July 1996, plans were under way to water down those targets set only three years earlier. Then Environment Minister, Simon Upton “committed” his government to;
…take precautionary actions to help stabilise atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases in order to reduce risk from global climate change, and to meet New Zealand’s commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, including:
• To return net emissions of carbon dioxide to no more than their 1990 levels by the year 2000 (but aim for a reduction in net carbon dioxide emissions to 20 percent below their 1990 levels by the year 2000 if this is cost-effective and will not harm our trade) and to maintain them at this level thereafter; and
• To reduce net emissions of other greenhouse gases, particularly methane, by the year 2000 where possible and maintain them at those levels thereafter.
“Cost effective“, “not harm our trade“, and “where possible” – the weasel words of a government determined not to be bound by any committment.
One could imagine the reaction if those terms were included in marriage vows or other social or legal contract.
- Third Target
Two years later, on 22 May 1998, National ratified the Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC. This time, National “committed” New Zealand to a target of limiting greenhouse gas emissions for the 2008-2012 period to five times the 1990 volume.
Worse still, New Zealand could either reduce emissions or obtain carbon credits from the international market or from domestic carbon sinks, to meet those “targets”.
The relevant Kyoto Protocol stated;
New Zealand’s emissions management task
• New Zealand’s initial assigned amount (translating into a corresponding holding of “emission units”) for the commitment period is 365 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. This is equal to five times the 73 million tonnes that New Zealand emitted in 1990, times 100%, which is New Zealand’s target under Annex B of the Protocol.
• New Zealand is projected to gain, during the commitment period, additional assigned amount (“removal units”) of 110 million tonnes of carbon dioxide-equivalent due to the growth of trees planted on land that has been converted (or reverted) to forest since 1990.
Like a desert mirage, New Zealand’s targets were continually receding under National.
- Fourth Target
December 2014 – National’s Climate Change Minister Tim Groser, announced New Zealand’s latest emissions reduction target of 5% below 1990 levels by 2020. This pushed the target date from 2008-2012 to 2020.
- Fifth Target
July 2015 – National’s Climate Change Minister Tim Groser announced new emissions target, a 30% reduction on 2005 levels, by 2030.
Not only is the target date pushed further out, from 2020, top 2030 – but the baseline is now 2005 instead of 1990.
Five different targets in twentytwo years – each one more watered down; pushing target dates further and further into the distant future. Which begs two questions;
- What will be the next emissions reduction level and target date? When does it begin to sound patently ridiculous? 2050? 2099? Next century?
- How has no one noticed that National has been surreptitiously shifting the goal-posts?
Massey University climate change expert, Professor Ralph Sims, was not impressed with National’s subterfuge;
Prof Sims said 2005 was the year of New Zealand’s highest emissions and the 2030 target gives New Zealand “10 extra years to produce very little extra reduction.”
By Prof Sims’s calculations, based on gross greenhouse emissions set under the Kyoto Protocol, New Zealand needed to cut emissions by 63,384 kilotonnes under its previous target and by 59,150 KT under the new one.
In essence, he said New Zealand is now doing less than its fair share.
6. The Problem Worsens
Meanwhile, our emissions have continued to worsen, whilst National fiddles;
New Zealand’s net emissions of greenhouse gases climbed 42 per cent between 1990 and 2013.
Gross emissions, which exclude carbon flows relating to forestry and land use change, rose 21 per cent between 1990 (year zero for carbon accounting purposes) and 2013, to be the fifth highest per capita among 40 developed countries.
Two decades of goal setting; and goal-post moving; and the results have been disappointing, if not predictable.
This has been National’s legacy.
University’s Environmental Performance Index has highlighted New Zealand’s falld on international EPI rankings.
In 2008, New Zealand ranked seventh out of 149 nations.
In 2012, our ranking had dropped seven placings to number fourteen.
Last year, we fell a further two spots, to number sixteen.
As John Key stated seven years ago;
“And we should always measure a Government’s environmental rhetoric against its environmental record”.
On every indicator and policy, New Zealand is doing poorly in the field of conservation. We are going backwards.
“I think we never wanted to be a world leader in climate change.” – John Key, 12 November 2012
National Party: John Key Speech – Environment Policy Launch
Fairfax media: ‘Carbon neutral’ policy added to scrap heap
NZ Herald: ETS changes ‘unlikely’ despite pleas
National Party: Government announces ETS amendments
Radio NZ: Farmers’ ETS exemption progresses
Otago Daily Times: Foreign buyers still in market
Radio NZ: State of the Environment report stopped
Dominion Post: Government shuns second Kyoto committment
Wikipedia: Fourth National Government of New Zealand
Ministry for the environment: State of New Zealand’s Environment 1997 (ch5)
Beehive.govt.nz: Environment 2010 Strategy
Otago Daily Times: Groser – NZ’s emission impossible
NZ Herald: NZ’s greenhouse gas emissions soar
Yale University: 2008 Environmental Performance Index
Yale University: 2012 Environmental Performance Index
Yale University: 2014 Environmental Performance Index
Green Party: Govt’s emissions reduction target 100% pure spin
No Right Turn: Are fossil fuels really an industry we want to promote?
Open Parachute: Talk of “mini ice age” bunkum
The Daily Blog: Using freezing temperatures to claim global warming is a hoax
The Standard: Emissions targets an admission that we don’t care
The Standard: It’s just too expensive to act on climate change
NASA Goddard Insititute for Space Studies: Global Climate Modeling
Skeptical Science: Global Warming in a Nutshell
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